时间：2017年9月21日（周四）11：50 - 12：50
报告题目：Environmental Pollution and Health
1. Industrial water pollution, water environment treatment, and health risks
The negative health effects of water pollution remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. The Chinese government is making great efforts to strengthen water environment treatment; however, no studies have evaluated the effects of water treatment on human health by water pollution in China. This study evaluated the association between water pollution and health outcomes, and determined the extent to which environmental regulations on water pollution may lead to health benefits. Data were extracted from the 2011 and 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Random effects model and random effects Logit model were applied to study the relationship between health and water pollution, while a Mediator model was used to estimate the effects of environmental water treatment on health outcomes by the intensity of water pollution. Unsurprisingly, water pollution was negatively associated with health outcomes, and the common pollutants in industrial wastewater had differential impacts on health outcomes. The effects were stronger for low-income respondents. Water environment treatment led to improved health outcomes among Chinese people. Reduced water pollution mediated the associations between water environment treatment and health outcomes. The results of this study offer compelling evidence to support treatment of water pollution in China.
2. Air Pollution and Depressive Symptoms
Background: China has some of the highest levels of air pollution. As air quality continues to deteriorate, the adverse health effects of this poor air quality have gradually emerged. However, the question of whether chronic disease influences one's susceptibility to depressive symptoms from air pollution has not been addressed. This study aimed to estimate the association of air pollution with depressive symptoms and identify whether individuals with chronic disease were vulnerable subgroup to the adverse health effects of air pollution in China.
Methods: Using a combined data of individual sample data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) and a group of city-level variables in 2011 and 2013, random effects model and Tobit model were applied to link air pollution intensity to evaluate the association of depressive symptoms measured by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D). The analysis was also stratified with chronic disease characteristics.
Conclusions: Air pollution was found to be related to depressive symptoms. Individuals with chronic disease were more susceptible to the influence of air pollution. These adverse health effects of air pollution should be considered when setting air pollution policies. Our findings also provide justification for mental health interventions that target exposure to air pollution, especially for those with chronic diseases.
3. Extreme Weather and Mortality
The frequency, intensity, and duration of extreme weather are projected to increase, which may lead to changes in health threat to human beings. Using national wide city-level data, this study applied the infinite distributed lag model to estimate the short-term and long-term effect of extreme weather events on all-cause mortality in an understudied country-China. As expected, both extreme heat and cold weather had contemporary and long-term effects on all caused-mortality. The long-run effects of extreme heat and cold were bigger but not so great compared to that of short-run effects. Warm days, cool days, warm spell duration indicator and cold spell duration indicator were the most affecting extreme weather. Low GDP areas were more affected by extreme weather. The results of this study offer compelling evidence to support extreme weather-plans designed to be triggered during days of extreme heat and cold in China.